Bilirubin Profile of Dog Infected Chronically by Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. Combination

Bilirubin Profile of Dog Infected Chronically by Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. Combination

Leni Maylina1, Dondin Sajuthi1, Anita Esfandiari1, Agus Wijaya1, Sus Derthi Widhyari1,

1Division of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical, Reproduction and

Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

 

Abstract

There are no report about the profile of an infected dog bilirubin combination of these two diseases in Indonesia. The study used 28 dogs who have been diagnosed positively infected by a combination of Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. Dogs were divided into five groups based on race, there are BM / Belgian Malinois (n = 4), GR / Golden Retriever (n

= 3), LR / Labrador Retriever (n = 6), GS / German Shepherd (n = 6), and RW / Rotweiller (n

= 9). Blood samples were taken from chepalica antibrachii veins for checking bilirubin count, conjugated bilirubin, and unconjugated bilirubin. Based on the observation of the five groups of dog breeds (Belgian Malinois, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd and Rottweiler) were infected chronically by Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. combination, it can be concluded that all racial groups tend to be higher than normal range the bilirubin count with an increase conjugated bilirubin (conjugated hyperbilirubinemia).

 

search term : Bilirubin Profile of Dog Infected Chronically

 

Keyword: Bilirubin Profile, Dog, Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. Combination

Infection

 

Introduction

 

There are no report about information of babesiosis and haemobartonellosis combination infection in dogs in Indonesia. As long as there is no information about the profile  of  an  infected  dog  bilirubin  combination  of  these  two  diseases  in  Indonesia.

Bilirubin Profile of Dog Infected Chronically by Babesia sp

Method

 

The study used 28 dogs who have been diagnosed positively infected by a combination of Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. Dogs were divided into five groups based on race, there are BM / Belgian Malinois (n = 4), GR / Golden Retriever (n = 3), LR / Labrador Retriever (n = 6), GS / German Shepherd (n = 6), and RW / Rotweiller (n = 9). Blood samples were taken from chepalica antibrachii veins for checking bilirubin count, conjugated bilirubin, and unconjugated bilirubin using DTN-photometer Dialab 410® instrument.

 

Results and Discussion

 

The average concentrations of bilirubin count, conjugated bilirubin, and unconjugated bilirubin in all racial groups of dog which infected chronically by Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. combination could be seen in Table 1. Generally an increase bilirubin count   concentration   is   also   accompanied   by   an   increase   the   conjugated   bilirubin concentration in the fifth group of dog breeds.

 

Table 1 Average of bilirubin profile in the fifth group of dog breeds were infected chronically by Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. combination

 

Parameter NormalRange* BM GR Dog BreedsLR GS RW
Bilirubin count 0.1 – 0.6 1.64±1.85 0.83±0.38 0.72±0.17 0.85±0.21 0.68±0.20
(mg/dL)
Conjugated 0.0–0.14 1.31±1.85 0.71±0.32 0.35±0.20 0.48±0.13 0.35±0.16
bilirubin (mg/dL)
Unconjugated 0.07–0.6 0.34±0.28 0.12±0.76 0.36±0.31 0.30±0.12 0.40±0.17
bilirubin (mg/dL)

 

BM: Belgian Malinois, GR: Golden Retriever, LR: Labrador Retriever, GS: German Shepherd,

RW: Rottweiler; *Morgan (2008)

 

, and

 

Group of Belgian Malinois has a total bilirubin concentration, conjugated bilirubin

unconjugated bilirubin highest compared to other groups in this study, while the Rottweiler breed  dog  has  the  lowest  concentration  (Table  1).  Yadav  et  al.  (2011)  reported  that increasing the concentration of bilirubin in the circulating blood (hyperbilirubinemia) in dogs with babesiosis.

Hemolytic disease that increases a rate of destruction of red blood cells, is the cause of  excessive  bilirubin  formation  and  the  most  frequent  cause  of  hemolytic  jaundice.

Conjugation  and  transfer  of  bile  pigments  normally  take  place,  but  the  supply  of

unconjugated bilirubin in the liver beyond the capabilities of doing conjugation. This resulted in an increase in the concentration of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood (Price and Wilson

2006).

Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by excessive bilirubin formation mechanism, impaired retrieval (uptake) of unconjugated bilirubin by the liver and impaired conjugation of bilirubin. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by a decrease in excretion of conjugated bilirubin in the bile due to intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors that are caused by functional or mechanical obstruction. If the supply of unconjugated bilirubin and liver beyond normal limits conjugation able to do well, but an interruption in the transfer of bile pigment will result in increased levels of conjugated bilirubin in the blood (Price and Wilson 2006).

The fifth group of dog breeds in this study experienced an increase in total bilirubin concentration above the upper limit of normal (especially in the group of purebred Belgian Malinois). Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by increased concentrations of conjugated bilirubin up to 9,36 times (Belgian Malinois) and 2.5 – 5 times in the fourth group of other dog breeds.

 

Conclusion

 

Based on the observation of the five groups of dog breeds (Belgian Malinois, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd and Rottweiler) were infected chronically by Babesia sp. and Haemobartonella sp. combination, it can be concluded that all racial groups tend to be higher than normal range the bilirubin count with an increase conjugated bilirubin (conjugated hyperbilirubinemia).

 

References

 

Morgan RV. 2008 Handbook of Small Animal Practice. 5th ed. Vol 2 pp 1269-1271.

Price  SA  and  Wilson  LMC.  2006  Pathophysiology.  The  Concept  of  Clinical  Disease

Processes. 6th ed. Jakarta: EGC Book Medical Publishers.

Yadav  R,  Gattani  A,  Gupta  SR,  Sharma  CS.  2011.  Jaundice  in  dogs  associated  with babesiosis. Int Jour for Agro Vet Med Sci. 5 (1): 3-6.